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Aquarium Sand Depth Calculator

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This Applet will run online in your browser, but it is a hybrid you can also download, install and run it on your own machine as standalone application. It will start and run faster if you do that. It will also work safely even if you have disabled Java in your browser.

Introduction The Dust Problem
Applet Lighting
How To Calculate The Amount of Substrate You Need My Fish
How Deep Should The Substrate Be? Tips to Online Retailers
What Specific Gravity Is My Substrate? Futures
Measuring Specific Gravity of a Sample of Substrate Books
Types of Substrate Mini Reviews
Java Requirements and Troubleshooting Links
Sand or Gravel?

Introduction

This Applet will let you calculate how much substrate you need for a given aquarium. It works in either metric or imperial/US measure.

Applet

Applet failed to run. No Java 1.8 or later plug-in found.

Java Requirements and Troubleshooting

SandDepth is a signed Java Applet (that can also be run as an application) to calculate how much aquarium sand you need for a given aquarium. You are welcome to install it on your own website. If it does not work…
  1. For this Applet hybrid to work, you must click grant/accept/always run on this site/I accept the risk to give it permission to let you choose the Look and Feel. If you refuse to grant permission, the program may crash with an inscrutable stack dump on the console complaining about AccessController.checkPermission.
  2. In the Java Control Panel security tab, click Start ⇒ Control Panel ⇒ Programs ⇒ Java ⇒ Security, configure medium security to allow self-signed and vanilla unsigned applets to run. If medium is not available, or if Java security is blocking you from running the program, configure high security and add http://mindprod.com to the Exception Site List at the bottom of the security tab.
  3. Often problems can be fixed simply by clicking the reload button on your browser.
  4. Make sure you have both JavaScript and Java enabled in your browser.
  5. Make sure the Java in your browser is enabled in the security tab of the Java Control panel. Click Start ⇒ Control Panel ⇒ Programs ⇒ Java ⇒ Security ⇒ Enable Java Content in the browser.
  6. This signed Java Applet (that can also be run as an application) needs 32-bit or 64-bit Java 1.8 or later. For best results use the latest 1.8.0_102 Java.
  7. You also need a recent browser.
  8. It works under any operating system that supports Java e.g. W2K, XP, W2003, Vista, W2008, W7-32, W7-64, W8-32, W8-64, W2012, W10-32, W10-64, Linux, LinuxARM, LinuxX86, LinuxX64, Ubuntu, Solaris, SolarisSPARC, SolarisSPARC64, SolarisX86, SolarisX64 and OSX
  9. You should see the Applet hybrid above looking much like this screenshot. If you don’t, the following hints should help you get it working:
  10. Optionally, you may permanently install the Canadian Mind Products code-signing certificate so you don’t have to grant each time.
  11. If the above Applet hybrid appears to freeze-up, click Alt-Esc repeatedly to check for any buried permission dialog box.
  12. If you have certificate troubles, check the installed certificates and remove or update any obsolete or suspected defective certificates. The only certificate used by this program is mindprodcert2016dsa.cer.
  13. Especially if this Applet hybrid has worked before, try clearing the browser cache and rebooting.
  14. To ensure your Java is up to date, check with Wassup. First, download it and run it as an application independent of your browser, then run it online as an Applet to add the complication of your browser.
  15. If the above Applet hybrid does not work, check the Java console for error messages.
  16. If the above Applet hybrid does not work, you might have better luck with the downloadable version available below.
  17. If you are using Mac OS X and would like an improved Look and Feel, download the QuaQua look & feel from randelshofer.ch/quaqua. UnZip the contained quaqua.jar and install it in ~/Library/Java/Extensions or one of the other ext dirs.
  18. Upgrade to the latest version of Internet Explorer or another browser.
  19. Click the Information bar, and then click Allow blocked content. Unfortunately, this also allows dangerous ActiveX code to run. However, you must do this in order to get access to perfectly-safe Java Applets running in a sandbox. This is part of Microsoft’s war on Java.
  20. Try upgrading to a more recent version of your browser, or try a different browser e.g. Firefox, SeaMonkey, IE or Avant.
  21. If you still can’t get the program working click the red HELP button below for more detail.
  22. If you can’t get the above Applet hybrid working after trying the advice above and from the red HELP button below, have bugs to report or ideas to improve the program or its documentation, please send me an email atemail Roedy Green.
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How To Calculate The Amount of Substrate You Need

  1. Make sure you have your zoom on normal 100%. Otherwise the Applet will not be given enough room to run.
  2. Give the Java Applet permission to run. It is requires permission because it allows you to change the look and feel. Alternatively, you could download it and install it on your machine.
  3. Use the sliders to select the length, width and height of your aquarium.
  4. Select the depth of substrate you want.
  5. You can also reverse calculate. Select the amount of substrate you have and it will tell you how deeply it will spread.
  6. You can change the look and feel with the look and feel menu item.
  7. If you run SandDepth as a standalone utility you can drag it as big as you want, giving you longer, easier-to-control sliders.

How Deep Should The Substrate Be?

If you don’t have plants, 2½ cm (0.98 in) will suffice. Shallow aquarium plants will survive in 5 cm (1.97 in). The Activ-Flora company recommends 7½ cm (2.95 in) as ideal for plants. Bigger plants you might put in pots.

What Specific Gravity Is My Substrate?

Specific gravity is a measure of how dense/heavy your substrate or gravel is. Technically is the ratio of the weight of your substrate to an equal volume of water. If you don’t know, just use 1.5.

Many of the following links are to caribsea.com. Their site is under construction and most of the links do not currently work.
Specific Gravities
Type Specific
Gravity
Particle
range
mm
photo Notes
Montmorillonite clay aka Moltan Safe-T-Sorb red 0.56 1.5 - 5.0 Moltan Safe-T-Sorb red Very cheap, but dusty and breaks down. Not intended as an aquarium substrate.
Fuller’s Earth aka Moltan Safe-T-Sorb green 0.56 1.5 - 5.0 Moltan Safe-T-Sorb green Very cheap, but dusty and breaks down. Not intended as an aquarium substrate.
CaribSea, Floramax, Midnight 0.87 3.0 - 6.0 CaribSea, Floramax Midnight
CaribSea, Floramax, Volcano Red 0.87 3.0 - 6.5 CaribSea, Floramax Volcano Red
CaribSea, Marine, Coraline, Volcano Beach 0.87 4.0 - 12.5 CaribSea, Marine, Coraline, Volcano Beach
CaribSea, Super Naturals, Voodoo River 0.87 0.25 - 6 CaribSea, Super Naturals Voodoo River
Seachem, Cichlid, Onyx 1.00 6 - 10 Seachem Cichlid Onyx
clay/laterite 1.02
CaribSea, Floramax, Original 1.09 2.0 - 5.5 CaribSea, Floramax Original
aragonite 1.12
CaribSea, Cichlid Mix, Original 1.13 5.0 - 10.0 CaribSea, Cichlid Mix, Original
CaribSea, Marine, Coraline, Aruba Puka Shell - Coarse 1.13 7.0 - 25.0 CaribSea, Marine, Coraline, Aruba Puka She - Coarse
CaribSea, Marine, Coraline, Aruba Puka She - Fine 1.13 3.0 - 10.0 CaribSea, Marine, Coraline, Aruba Puka She - Fine
CaribSea, Marine, Arag-Alive, FCC 1.16 3.0 - 5.5 CaribSea, Marine, Arag-Alive FCC
CaribSea, Marine, Coraline, Caribbean Crushed Coral 1.16 3.0 - 6.0 CaribSea, Marine, Coraline, Caribbean Crushed Coral
CaribSea, Marine, dry Aragonite, FCC 1.16 3.0 - 5.5 CaribSea, Marine, dry Aragonite, FCC
CaribSea, Cichlid Mix, White 1.17 1.0 - 2.0 CaribSea, Cichlid Mix, White
sand, quartz 1.20
CaribSea, Marine, Arag-Alive, Hawaiian Black 1.29 0.2 - 3.5 CaribSea, Marine, Arag-Alive Hawaiian Black
CaribSea, Marine, Coraline, Maui Wowie 1.29 3.0 - 5.0 CaribSea, Marine, Coraline, Maui Wowie
CaribSea, Marine, dry Aragonite, Bermuda Pink 1.29 2.5 - 5.5 CaribSea, Marine, dry Aragonite, Bermuda Pink
gravel 1.30
CaribSea, Cichlid Mix, Congo River 1.32 3.0 - 10.0 CaribSea, Cichlid Mix, Congo River
CaribSea, Marine, Arag-Alive, Special Grade Reef 1.37 1.0 - 2.0 CaribSea, Marine, Arag-Alive Special Grade Reef
CaribSea, Marine, dry Aragonite, Flamingo Reef 1.37 1.0 - 2.0 CaribSea, Marine, dry Aragonite, Flamingo Reef
CaribSea, Marine, dry Aragonite, Special Grade Reef 1.37 1.0 - 2.0 CaribSea, Marine, dry Aragonite, Special Grade Reef
CaribSea, Marine, dry Aragonite, Super Reef 1.37 0.5 - 2.5 CaribSea, Marine, dry Aragonite, Super Reef
sand, loose 1.44
CaribSea, Marine, Arag-Alive, Bimini Pink 1.45 0.5 - 5.0 CaribSea, Marine, Arag-Alive Bimini Pink
CaribSea, Marine, Arag-Alive, Fiji Pink 1.45 0.5 - 1.5 CaribSea, Marine, Arag-Alive Fiji Pink
CaribSea, Marine, Arag-Alive, Indo-Pacific Black 1.45 0.2 - 5.0 CaribSea, Marine, Arag-Alive Indo-Pacific Black
CaribSea, Marine, Arag-Alive, West Caribbean Reef 1.45 1.0 - 5.0 CaribSea, Marine, Arag-Alive West Caribbean Reef
CaribSea, Marine, dry Aragonite, Aragamax Select 1.45 0.5 - 1.5 CaribSea, Marine, dry Aragonite, Aragamax Select
CaribSea, Marine, dry Aragonite, Fiji Pink 1.45 0.5 - 1.5 CaribSea, Marine, dry Aragonite, Fiji Pink
CaribSea, Super Naturals, Tahitian Moon 1.47 0.5 - 1 CaribSea, Super Naturals Tahitian Moon
CaribSea, Super Naturals, Zen Garden 1.47 9.5 - 13 CaribSea, Super Naturals Zen Garden
CaribSea, Cichlid Mix, Sahara Sand 1.48 0.5 - 1.5 CaribSea, Cichlid Mix, Sahara Sand
CaribSea, Eco-Complete Cichlid Sand 1.48 0.5 - 1.5 CaribSea, Eco-Complete Cichlid Sand
CaribSea, Instant Aquarium, Tahitian Moon 1.48 0.5 - 1.0 CaribSea, Instant Aquarium Tahitian Moon
CaribSea, Marine, Coraline, Think Pink 1.48 2.0 - 12.0 CaribSea, Marine, Coraline, Think Pink
CaribSea, Super Naturals, Peace River 1.49 1 - 2 CaribSea, Super Naturals Peace River
CaribSea, Super Naturals, Rio Grande 1.49 3 - 5 CaribSea, Super Naturals Rio Grande
CaribSea, Instant Aquarium, Peace River 1.50 1.0 - 2.0 CaribSea, Instant Aquarium Peace River
CaribSea, Cichlid Mix, Ivory Coast Gravel 1.51 3.0 - 5.0 CaribSea, Cichlid Mix, Ivory Coast Gravel
CaribSea, Cichlid Mix, Ivory Coast Sand 1.51 1.0 - 2.5 CaribSea, Cichlid Mix, Ivory Coast Sand
CaribSea, Cichlid Mix, Rift Lake Authentic 1.51 4.0 - 10.0 CaribSea, Cichlid Mix, Rift Lake Authentic
CaribSea, Instant Aquarium, Sunset Gold 1.51 0.2 - 0.8 CaribSea, Instant Aquarium Sunset Gold
CaribSea, Instant Aquarium, Torpedo Beach 1.51 0.5 - 2.0 CaribSea, Instant Aquarium Torpedo Beach
CaribSea, Super Naturals, Sunset Gold 1.51 0.25 - 1 CaribSea, Super Naturals Sunset Gold
CaribSea, Super Naturals, Torpedo Beach 1.51 0.5 - 3 CaribSea, Super Naturals Torpedo Beach
CaribSea, Super Naturals, Amazon 1.52 4 - 5 CaribSea, Super Naturals Amazon
CaribSea, Super Naturals, Crystal River 1.52 0.5 - 1 CaribSea, Super Naturals Crystal River
CaribSea, Super Naturals, Kon Tiki 1.52 1.5 - 3 CaribSea, Super Naturals Kon Tiki
CaribSea, Super Naturals, Snowy River 1.52 4 - 5 CaribSea, Super Naturals Snowy River
CaribSea, Instant Aquarium, Crystal River 1.53 0.5 - 1.0 CaribSea, Instant Aquarium Crystal River
CaribSea, Eco Complete Planted, Black 1.54 0.2 - 7.0 CaribSea, Eco Complete Planted, Black
CaribSea, Eco Complete Planted, Fine 1.54 0.2 - 3.0 CaribSea, Eco Complete Planted, Fine
CaribSea, Eco Complete Planted, Red 1.54 3.0 - 6.0 CaribSea, Eco Complete Planted, Red
CaribSea Marine, Ocean Direct, Oolite 1.54 0.2 - 1.0 CaribSea ,Marine, Ocean Direct, Oolite
CaribSea Marine, Ocean Direct, Original 1.54 0.2 - 1.0 CaribSea ,Marine, Ocean Direct, Original
CaribSea, Marine, Arag-Alive, Bahamas Oolite 1.54 0.2 - 1.0 CaribSea, Marine, Arag-Alive Bahamas Oolite
CaribSea, Marine, dry Aragonite, Aragamax 1.54 0.2 - 1.0 CaribSea, Marine, dry Aragonite, Aragamax
CaribSea, Marine, dry Aragonite, Grand Bahamas Biome 1.54 0.2 - 7.0 CaribSea, Marine, dry Aragonite, Grand Bahamas Biome
CaribSea, Super Naturals, Gemstone Creek 1.54 3 - 6 CaribSea, Super Naturals Gemstore Creek
CaribSea, Super Naturals, jelly beans 1.54 3 - 5 CaribSea, Super Naturals Gemstone Creek
Seachem, Marine, Kona Coast Sand 1.54 3 - 15 Seachem Kona Coast Sand
sand, coral 1.56 coral sand from Bermuda
CaribSea, Super Naturals, Moonlight sand 1.60 0.25 - 0.75 CaribSea, Super Naturals Moonlight sand
sand, dry 1.60
CaribSea, Instant Aquarium, Kon Tiki 1.61 1.0 - 3.0 CaribSea, Instant Aquarium Kon Tiki
CaribSea, Instant Aquarium, Moonlight Sand 1.61 0.2 - 0.8 CaribSea, Instant Aquarium Moonlight Sand
CaribSea, Instant Aquarium, Rio Grande 1.61 3.0 - 5.0 CaribSea, Instant Aquarium Rio Grande
sand, silica 1.7 0.06 to 2.0 silica sand Individual grains have specific gravity 2.6.
gravel, dolomite. 1.79
Gobi desert sand 1.80 Gobi Sand Not for sale. You would have to collect it yourself.
CaribSea, Super Naturals, Blue Ridge 1.83 3 - 10 CaribSea, Super Naturals Blue Ridge
pea gravel 1.87
sand, fine 2.00
Activ Flora Floralite 2.00 2.0 - 6.0 Activ Flora Floralite wet, contains fertiliser. I bought a bag for my own tank and measured it.
sand, live/wet 2.11

The higher the specific gravity, the denser the substrate and the more weight of substrate you need to achieve a given depth. Asking how dense is substrate is a bit like asking how heavy is a rock. Generalisations are not that useful. You have to look at a particular batch of substrate. You also have to take numbers you pick off the net with a huge grain of salt. I found some out by a factor of three. Water-packed substrate will have a high specific gravity since the air spaces between the particles are filled with water. In other words, it does not go as far per pound. Wet packing will increase the specific gravity by about 35%.

The specific gravity depends on the mineral and how fine the particles are. Sometimes the manufacturer will tell you the range of particle sizes in mm, e.g.. Fiji Pink Sand 0.5-1.5 mm which can give you a clue.

If you know the specific gravities (or weights and volumes in any unit of measure) of particular brands, products or types of substrate, please pass them on to include in the table. If you are a manufacturer of such products, here is a chance for a free plug. If you have some substrate, please measure its specific gravity and pass it on. Ideally you would give me:

  1. The name of the substrate.
  2. A link to where you can buy it
  3. The specific gravity. Just give me the weight in pounds per cu in, oz per cup etc, and I will compute the specific gravity for you.
  4. The range of particle sizes in mm.
  5. A 100 × 60 pixel ideally lifesize photo. I will crop and resize it for you if you tell me the magnification.

I asked all the substrate vendors to provide information for the table, but only CaribSea responded.

Measuring Specific Gravity of a Sample of Substrate

When someone talks about the specific gravity of a substrate, they can mean one of two things:

  1. The specific gravity of an individual particle. This will usually be greater than 2.0.
  2. The specific gravity of a bag full of substrate, including all the air pockets between the particles. This can often be less than 1.0 (weighs less than water. The individual particles will sink just fine, however.)

For example, consider Montmorillonite clay aka Moltan Safe-T-Sorb red. The specific gravity of an individual particle (quoted in the material data sheet), is 2.2. But specific gravity of an entire bag is 0.56, about half the weight of water. This second definition is the one that is germane in figuring how much substrate to buy for a given depth.

Metric Bag Weight Method

You can measure the specific gravity of your particular substrate. It is the weight in kilograms of a litre of substrate. It is easy to adjust in your head from any other metric weights or volumes. It will just be a matter of multiplying by some power of ten to get a number near one.

Imperial Bag Weight Method

To compute specific gravity using imperial measure is a little more complicated. Let’s assume you weigh a bag of substrate and discover it is 15.4 pounds and has a volume of 300 cubic inches. (Perhaps it tells you on the bag, though take those numbers with a grain of salt.) Calculate 15.4 ÷ 300 * 27.681.42 specific gravity. You can also do the calculation by typing the following as a Google search:

convert 15.4 pounds per 300 cubic inches to kg per litre

Here is how it works: Water weighs .036_126 pounds per cubic inch. So the substrate is 15.4 ÷ 300 ÷ 0.036_126 = 1.42 times heavier, namely the specific gravity.

US Measuring Cup Method

Fill a US measuring cup exactly to the line with a sample of your substrate. Pour it into a plastic bag. Take it to the post office, (or to someone with a postal scale), smile sweetly and ask them to weigh it for you. Let’s say it weighs 12 oz. calculate 12 * 0.1198261.437 and that is your specific gravity. You can also do the calculation by typing the following as a Google search:

convert 12 oz per 1 us cup to kg per litre

Here is how it works: 1 US measuring cup is 236.588 ml. That means one cup of water weighs 236.588 grams. 1 gram is 0.035274 oz. So your substrate is weight ÷( 0.035274 * 236.588 ) ⇒ 1.437 times as heavy as water.

Imperial Measuring Cup Method

Here is another method. Fill a US measuring cup exactly to the line with a sample of your substrate. Pour it into a plastic bag. Take it to the post office, (or to someone with a postal scale), smile sweetly and ask them to weigh it for you. Let’s say it weighs 12 oz. calculate 12 * 0.124_7231.497 and that is your specific gravity. You can’t do it with Google because it does not know with Imperial measuring cups are.

Here is how it works, 1 Imperial measuring cup is 227.30 ml. That means one cup of water weighs 227.30 grams. 1 gram is 0.035274 oz. So your substrate is weight ÷( 0.035274 * 227.30 ) = 0.1497 times as heavy as water.

Metric Measuring Cup Method

The metric methods in preferable to the US or Imperial cup method because you can tell a metric measuring cup from Imperial or US one, but you cannot easily tell an Imperial one from a US one. Fill a metric measuring cup exactly to the 250 ml line with a sample of your substrate. Pour it into a plastic bag. Take it to the post office, (or to someone with a postal scale), smile sweetly and ask them to weigh it for you. Let’s say it weighs 340 grams. Convert to kg/litre with 340 * 0.0041.36 and that is your specific gravity. You can also do the calculation by typing the following as a Google search:

convert 340 grams per 250 cc to kg per litre

#/ft3 Method

Sometimes someone will tell you that a particular gravel is 95 pounds per cubic foot (#/ft3). You can convert that to specific gravity. Calculate 95 * 0.016_084_61.53 and that is your specific gravity. You can also do the calculation by typing the following as a Google search:

convert 95 pounds per cubic foot to kg per litre

Here is how it works. A cubic foot of water weighs 62.427_96 pounds, so your sample is weight_in_pounds ÷ 62.427_96 times heavier than water, in other words weight_in_pounds * 0.016_084_6 = 1.53 is the specific gravity.

Slider Method

Buy a bag of substrate. Pour it into a tank. Measure how deep it is using either imperial or metric measure. Use the SandDepth Applet. Fill in the length and width of the tank and the depth of the substrate using the sliders. Adjust the specific gravity until the weight displayed matches the weight of the bag. That is the specific gravity of the substrate.

Types of Substrate

Sand or Gravel?

Which should you use, sand or gravel. If you keep a single species of fish or fish from the same region of the world, you should research what the bottoms look like there and mimic them.

Advantages of Gravel

Advantages of Sand

Disadvantages of Gravel

Disadvantages of Sand

The Dust Problem

Especially with fertiliser or microbe-treated substrates that you are not supposed to rinse, when you first set up, the water will be quite cloudy with fine dust particles. An ordinary filter may not be to remove them. You need something with a finer mesh such as micron filter pads or filters utilizing diatomaceous earth. Most of the filters of this type are very expensive. Perhaps you could rig up something with orlon wool in a conventional filter. Another low-cost possibility is the Tetra Whisper internal filter with bio bag filter.

Lighting

I started out with two 15-watt flourescents. One or the other of them would die about every month. A replacement cost $22.00 CAD . I decided to replace them with an expensive LED (Light-Emitting Diode) cover which I figured would not burn out so quickly. The catch is the light is very dim, about equivalent of 9 watts of fluorescent total. We will see if the plants can survive on such a low light diet.

My Fish

I am particularly happy with my choice of fish. They are quite fascinating to watch. They get along reasonably well with each other in my heavily planted, 10-gallon tank. They were not that expensive.

My Fish
Species Latin Count Notes
pearl danio Danio albolineatus 2 They are similar to zebra danios. The male looks like a miniature rainbow trout. They are a schooling fish. They Love to chase each other around wildly, but do not harm each other. They are voraciously hungry all the time. They grew fat very quickly. The females look as if they are ready to burst with their barrel-like bodies.
red danio Danio rerio 1 I found out later these are genetically modified zebra danios.
striped zebra danio Danio rerio 1
golden zebra danio Danio rerio 2 They Love to chase other danios other around wildly, but do not harm each other. Sometimes they form a swirling ball.
panda cory Corydoras panda 1 Industriously digs in the sand. Does not interact with the other fish.
Siamese algae eater Crossocheilus oblongus 1 This small fish keeps the entire tank and the plants in it almost completely free of algae. I am concerned it might not get enough to eat, particularly as it grows. It is a master of camouflage resting quietly on a waving leaf. I play Where’s Waldo with it every time I examine the tank. Sometimes it is able to beat me for days at a time.
Malaysian burrowing snail Melanoides Tuberculata more daily They probably stowed away on some plants. They are like tiny unicorn horns. They make appearances digging in the gravel.

Tips to Online Retailers

Futures

I hoped to collect substrate information from the other major vendors, however they have all turned me down.

If there is interest, I could write a heater-sizing app. To do it properly, it is not just a matter of multiplying the gallons by 7.5. It depends on the ambient temperature both day and night and to a lesser extent, the shape of the tank. Cubic tanks need less heat than the same capacity in a low flat tanks. Big tanks need proportionately less heat than small ones because the surface area to volume ratio is lower. To be fanatical, I could account for the fact the four sides, the open top and the enclosed bottom all have different insulating abilities. You don’t have to be that accurate just to buy a heater, so this would really be more to entertain the perfectionist learning how the various variables influence power consumption. The lights, especially incandescent, provide much of the heat during the day. To do this properly, I should observe the cycle times of a number of thermostats in a number of different tank shapes and sizes to verify my math. I was somewhat surprised at the lack of interest and outright hostility when I told people about my Sand Depth Calculator. You’d think I had done something criminal. This has dampened my enthusiasm for writing future programs.

When I was in Indonesia, I noticed the extreme rapidity with the sun rose and set and that days and nights were almost the same length all year round. This suggests to me tropical aquarium plants and fish would prefer a 12-hour light cycle. I think I will experiment with a timer.

Books

book cover recommend book⇒Ecology of the Planted Aquariumto book home
by Diana Walstad 978-0-9673773-6-0 hardcover
birth 1945 age:71 978-0-9673773-7-7 eBook
publisher Echinodorus Publishing B00DB94K5I kindle
published 2013-01-01
Book presents scientific information that hobbyists can use to set up and maintain successful planted freshwater aquaria. Book contains practical tips using a question-and-answer format in boxes scattered throughout the text. Hobbyists learn how to keep a healthy and inexpensive aquarium. Although the author prefers low-tech methods, she lays out the science that underlies all methods. The author shows that hobbyists can create thriving planted freshwater tanks without CO₂ injection, fertilizers, expensive lighting and high-tech gadgets.
Australian flag abe books anz abe books.co.uk UK flag
German flag abe books.de amazon.co.uk UK flag
German flag amazon.de abe books.ca Canadian flag
Spanish flag amazon.es amazon.ca Canadian flag
Spanish flag iberlibro.com Chapters Indigo Canadian flag
French flag abe books.fr abe books.com American flag
French flag amazon.fr amazon.com American flag
Italian flag abe books.it Barnes & Noble American flag
Italian flag amazon.it Nook at Barnes & Noble American flag
India flag junglee.com Kobo American flag
UN flag other stores Google play American flag
O’Reilly Safari American flag
Powells American flag
Greyed out stores probably do not have the item in stock. Try looking for it with a bookfinder.
book cover recommend book⇒Aquarium Plants (Mini Encyclopedia Series for Aquarium Hobbyists)to book home
by Peter Hiscock 978-0-7641-2989-6 paperback
publisher Barron’s Educational Series
published 2005-05-01
250 colour photos. Information on care of hundreds of species of plants.
Australian flag abe books anz abe books.co.uk UK flag
German flag abe books.de amazon.co.uk UK flag
German flag amazon.de abe books.ca Canadian flag
Spanish flag amazon.es amazon.ca Canadian flag
Spanish flag iberlibro.com Chapters Indigo Canadian flag
French flag abe books.fr abe books.com American flag
French flag amazon.fr amazon.com American flag
Italian flag abe books.it Barnes & Noble American flag
Italian flag amazon.it Nook at Barnes & Noble American flag
India flag junglee.com Kobo American flag
UN flag other stores Google play American flag
O’Reilly Safari American flag
Powells American flag
Greyed out stores probably do not have the item in stock. Try looking for it with a bookfinder.
book cover recommend book⇒Setting up a Tropical Aquarium, Week by Weekto book home
by Stuart Thraves 978-1-55407-482-2 paperback
birth 1970 age:46
publisher Firefly Books
published 2009-11-20
New fish-keepers are quite often impatient to set up their aquarium and want to add their new, expensive fish as soon as possible. This common misstep can have disastrous results that may discourage beginners from ever trying again. The book uses detailed photographic sequences to follow each stage of setting up an aquarium in real time over 10 weeks.
Australian flag abe books anz abe books.co.uk UK flag
German flag abe books.de amazon.co.uk UK flag
German flag amazon.de abe books.ca Canadian flag
Spanish flag amazon.es amazon.ca Canadian flag
Spanish flag iberlibro.com Chapters Indigo Canadian flag
French flag abe books.fr abe books.com American flag
French flag amazon.fr amazon.com American flag
Italian flag abe books.it Barnes & Noble American flag
Italian flag amazon.it Nook at Barnes & Noble American flag
India flag junglee.com Kobo American flag
UN flag other stores Google play American flag
O’Reilly Safari American flag
Powells American flag
Greyed out stores probably do not have the item in stock. Try looking for it with a bookfinder.

Mini Reviews

Activ-Flora: sand for plants
Angel Fins: Canadian (ON) aquarium online supplier, takes PayPal
aqua calculator
Aquarium Controller student project
Aquarium Guys: Pennsylvania aquarium supplies online store, takes PayPal
Aquarium Supplies: Canadian (ON) aquarium online supplier, takes PayPal
Calculating sand Depth manually
CaribSea
Drs. Foster and Smith: Wisconsin online pet store, take PayPal
filter media
Garf Sand Bed Calculator
Hagen Marina coloured sands
Homes Alive: Canadian (AB) online aquarium supplier
how to clean sand
J & L Aquatics: Canadian (BC) online aquarium supplier, takes PayPal
Longevity of various species of tropical fish
metric conversions
Pet Mountain: excellent Californian aquarium supply online store, takes PayPal
Pets and Ponds: Canadian (ON) aquarium online supplier, take PayPal, large selection, aka Critter Cove
Pure Water Pebbles aquarium gravel
Reef Central Sand Depth Calculator
Reef Supplies: Canadian (QC) reef supplies, takes PayPal
ReefSupplies: aka Go Reef, Canadian (QC) online reef supplier
sand or gravel for Cichlids?
Seachem Cuprisorb: removes copper
Seachem Flourite
Seachem MultiTest Copper: tests for excess copper. To my surprise, my water has undetectable copper. I guess the building I live in does not have copper plumbing
Seachem Onyx dark sand and gravels
Tropical Fish By Post in UK
Ultimate Reef Sand Bed Calculator
Which is better, gravel or sand? a view
Which is better, gravel or sand? another view
Which is better, gravel or sand? yet another view

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