Low level Internet protocols support multicasting — the ability to send a packet to more than on recipient. You might think this could be used by a TV station website to provide an Internet version of its broadcast, needing only the bandwith to support one channel. However, life is not that simple. Broadcasting to the Internet at large is not feasible for two main reasons:
You might ask, how does BitTorrent work, or how do live events on the Internet get broadcast and how does YouTube work, or your other favourite broadcasting. You have to study each protocol individually and unfortunately much of this sort of thing is a trade secret.
One trick is to use the clients listening to relay information to other clients, forming a tree. This reduces the bandwidth on the server. All packets are directed to a single other node on that tree. Usually the packets are exchanged with UDP (User Datagram Protocol) rather than my setting up a TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) socket connection.
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