Strings are quite different from C++. They are
immutable, i.e. You can’t change the characters in a
string. To look at individual characters, you need to use charAt(). Strings in Java are 16-bit
Unicode. To edit strings, you need to use a StringBuffer
object or a char. In Java version 1.5 or later you use StringBuilder, which
works exactly like StringBuffer, but it is faster and not
You get the size of a String (length in chars) with
not.length or. size() used in
For manipulating 8-bit characters, you want an array of
bytes — byte.
There are three types of empty string, null,
" and ". Here is how to check for each
if ( "abc".equals (s) ) echo ( "matched" );is
if ( s.equals ( "abc" ) ) echo ( "matched" );because the first form won’t
raise an exception if s is null. It will treat the strings
as not equal.
Unless Strings have been interned, with String.intern(), you cannot compare them for equality with
==. You have to use equals()
The compiler will not warn you if you inadvertently use ==.
Unfortunately, the bug may take a long time to surface if your compiler or virtual
machine is doing transparent interning. Interning gets you a reference to the master
copy of a String. This allows the duplicates to be garbage
collected sooner. However, there are three disadvantages to interning:
If you want to compare for < or > you cannot use the usual comparison
operators, you have to use compareTo() or compareToIgnoreCase() instead.
- It takes extra time to look up the master string in a Hashtable.
- In some implementations, you can have a maximum of 64K interned Strings.
- In some implementation, interned Strings are never
garbage collected, even when they are no longer used. The interning process itself
acts as a packratter. The answer is to implement them with weak references.
- String comparison does not logically trim leading and trailing whitespace
before compare. If you want that effect use.trim().
String s = "apple";
String t = "orange";
if ( s.compareTo(t) < 0 )
out.println( "s < t" );
}compareTo will return:
You can think of it roughly like treating the Strings as numbers and returning
- some positive number if string s lexically comes after t.
- 0 if s is the same as t.
- some negative number if s sorts earlier than t.
Novices might be astonished by the following results:
When you write your own classes, the default Object.equals does not do a field by field
comparison. You have to write your own version of equals
to get that effect. The default version simply tests the equality of the two
references — that they both point to the same object.
- abc.compareTo( ABC)
returns abc > ABC. compareTo is
- abc .compareTo ( abc(
returns abc >
abc. Blanks are treated
like any other character.
- "".compareTo( null) raises a java.lang.NullPointerException.
- "" is not the same thing as null. Most
String functions will be happy to handle "",
but very few will accept null.
- The comparison is done by straightforward Unicode numeric character by
character comparison. There is no adjustment for locale collating sequence.
Case-Sensitive and Case-Insensitive Comparison
Your basic tools are indexOf and lastIndexOf. They both have
variants with a base fromOffset where to start searching.
The result is relative to the start of the entire String, not the fromOffset. The common18 package
contains a StringSearch class that will search for many
different strings. These searches are all case-sensitive. To get case-insensitive
searches, convert both Strings to all upper case or all lower case first. You must
There are variants of the methods that search for a single character. These are
faster than the equivalent methods that look for a 1-character String. It would be
nice if the compiler were smart enough to optimise a 1-character String constant to a char as the parameter of
indexOf. You can abbreviate: x.indexOf( y )
>= 0 as x.contains ( y ).
Strings are immutable. Therefore they can be
reused indefinitely and they can be shared for many purposes. When you assign one
String variable to another, no copy is made. Even when you take a substring there is
no new String created, though a new String descriptor is. New Strings are created
- you concatenate.
- you read Strings from files.
- you foolishly use
new String(String);. There is one
situation where its use is legit. See substring for the explanation.
- you use new String( somethingElse ) ; for
- You use StringBuffer/StringBuilder toString/substring.
Every Object has a
method called toString that makes some sort of attempt to
convert the contents of the Object into human-readable
form as a Unicode String for display. Normally, when you
write a new class, you write you own corresponding toString method for it, even if just for debugging.
You use it like this: String toShow = myThing. toString();
The default Object.toString
method is not very clever. It does not display all the primitives in
your class with field names as you might expect. If you want that, you must code it
yourself. A default toString will typically, instead, do
something lame like dump the hashCode or the Object’s address — only mildly interesting.
toString has a magical property. It appears to get
invoked automatically to convert to String without you
having to mention toString.
- In one case, System.out.println (and brothers), it is not
really magic. println pulls it off with a plethora of
overloaded methods. println has many overloaded methods, one for each of the primitive types and then each overloaded method
converts its primitive parameter to a String for you and
passes that on to the variant of println that can only
handle Strings. But, you say, (glad to see you are so
attentive), primitives don’t have a toString
method! That is true, but there are static conversion methods to get that effect, such as
double ). For any Object
other than a String, println
invokes the Object’s usually-overridden custom toString method and passes the result on to the String-eating version of println.
- When you use concatenation, toString truly does get
called for you magically, sometimes. If ever you try to add two Objects, Java presumes you are really trying to concatenate them
and transparently calls each of their toString methods
and concatenates the results giving a String. It even
works when you try to add a String and a primitive.
Concatenation will convert the primitive to a String for
you and concatenate the results, transparently. This can lead to surprising results.
( char target, char replacement ) is considerably faster than
String. replace( String target, String replacement ). Both replace
all occurrences. So if you are replacing just a char, use single quotes. Unfortunately, String.
replace( String target, String replacement )
despite the name replaces all substrings.
replaceFirst replaces only the first one, but it wants a string-encoded Pattern. Whomever named these methods was a nitwit.
regex, String replacement ) also replaces all instances. The difference is,
replaceAll looks for a regex String not a simple String. Beware of using
regex, String replacement) when you meant replace(
String target, String replacement ). The second parameter is
not just a simple String. String. replaceAll behaves like
$ is a reference to a captured String in the search
pattern and \ is the regex quote character, meaning
literal \ must be coded as \\\\ and literal $ as \\$.
regex, String replacement ) also takes a regex. There is no replaceFirst that takes only a simple String.
in the Javadoc is shown with CharSequence parameters.
Don’t let this frighten you. String implements
CharSequence, so replace
works fine on Strings. replace
works on some other things as well such as StringBuilders.
None of the String methods ever modify the String object. They create a new one that you have to save:
String s = "apple";
s.replace( 'a', 'b' );
s = s.replace( 'a', 'b' );
String x = " apple ";
x = x.trim();
You can use
com.mindprod.common18.ST. isLegal to ensure a String contains only
the characters you consider legal. You can download it. It is pretty simple, using indexOf on the legal String.
You can also use charAt to extract the characters one
by one, then categorise them with the Character methods
such as isDigit.
String borrows some convenience
regex methods, such as split, matches, replaceAll and replaceFirst. Normally you
would use the more efficient java.util.regex methods
where you precompile your Pattern and reuse it. The
String versions are for one-shot use where efficiency is
not a concern.
Not only replaceAll but replace is implemented in an inefficient way, compiling a regex
pattern every time it is invoked:
So, if you are going to use replace or replaceAll more than once, you should use a separate regex compile
done only once.
- There is no case-insensitive compare or compareTo. You must convert the Strings to lower case then compare.
- String.replaceAll( a, b ) is
not the method to use to replace all instances of b in a. Instead
you use String. replace ( a,
b ). replaceAll is a convenience regex method.
( a, b ) does not modify a. It creates a new modified String. This is true of all String
methods. Strings are immutable. No method can modify the
- Consider lastIndexOf( s,
fromIndex). fromIndex is the
offset near the end of the string where to start searching backwards for a match
earlier in the string. It is not the index of a substring to search, i.e. the place
where the reverse searching stops.
I have three ideas to improve the efficiency of the way String is implemented:
- When a String is created the
JVM (Java Virtual Machine)
copies a char into a new
char attached to the String. It
does not simply put a reference to the char into the
String because it is worried somebody might subsequently
change the contents of the char, thus violating the
immutability contract of String. However, almost never
does anyone change a char after feeding it to new
String. I think the JVM could take
advantage of that. If it knew for sure no one would change it, it could safely and
rapidly just insert a reference. If it was not sure, it might just insert the
reference anyway and put a lock on it, so that if anyone ever did try to change it,
they would be blocked, the char could be copied and the
write completed to the old char and the String could attach itself to the new copy of the char.
- Interned Strings are
dangerous. Both interned and non-Interned Strings have the same type
— namely String. You must manually manage the
intern method to control precisely when the
interning is done. You must use either == or equals. If you get it wrong,
there are no error messages, just puzzling results. So I suggest using an
Interned separate type for interned Strings. You would use
== both for interned and
non-interned String compare.
They are automatically interned as appropriate (managed
in much the way hashCode is).
- There are two kinds of String:
I suggest sequential Strings be stored internally
in UTF-8 to conserve RAM (Random Access Memory). I suggest random
Strings be stored in 32-bit UTF-32 code points for
ease of processing. The compiler would have to guess which type a given
String should be. It might have to change its mind and
convert the String part way through run time. It might
even store some Strings in both forms. The readers and
writers when using UTF-8 should be able to take advantage of the fact no
translation is necessary. You could have two separate types for sequential
(UString) and random (String) in the Java language, but would be to onerous for
- sequential: Strings
you either treat as an atomic whole, treat char by char starting from the
- random: Strings you
operate on randomly with charAt or substring.
Oracle’s Javadoc on String
class : available:
Oracle’s Javadoc on StringBuffer
class : available:
Oracle’s Javadoc on StringBuilder
class : available:
Oracle’s Javadoc on StringJoiner
class : available: